Perihelion, Aphelion and the Solstices
The perihelion is the point in the orbit of the earth where it is nearest to its orbital focus, to the sun. It is the opposite of aphelion, which is the point in the orbit where the earth is farthest from its focus.
The word solstice is derived from the Latin “sol” meaning “sun” and “sistere” meaning “to stand still”. During the solstices, the Sun stands appears to stand still in declination, In other words, the seasonal movement of the Sun’s path, as seen from Earth, comes to a stop before reversing direction.
Is the Winter Solstice and the Perihelion Eelated?
The date of Earth’s perihelion drifts back as the centuries pass. These two astronomical events are separated by about two weeks for us now. A few centuries ago they were closer together and in fact they happened at in 1246 AD. As time passes, these events will drift even farther apart. On the average, one revolution of the Earth relative to perihelion is about 25 minutes longer than one revolution relative to the winter solstice. The perihelion advances one full calendar date every 60 years. As the Earth’s perihelion progress the next alignment of the perihelion will happen at the same time as the March equinox in 6430 AD.
What Causes Seasons on Earth?
In the Northern Hemisphere this creates summer during the months of June, July and August and winter in December, January, and February, when the North Pole is tilted toward the Sun and the Southern Hemisphere is tilted away.
Ans so the Southern Hemisphere this creates winter during the months of June, July and August and summer in December, January, and February, when the South Pole is tilted toward the Sun and the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away.
Distance Does Not Cause Seasons
However, our planet’s distance from the Sun has little effect on the onset of seasons. In fact, Earth is closest to the Sun, or at its Perihelion, around the Northern Hemisphere’s winter solstice, while it is farthest away from the Sun, or at its Aphelion, around the north’s summer solstice.